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Invitro fertilization (IVF) is a reproductive procedure, carried out to treat infertility when other methods fail to help the infertile couple to have a baby. The process involves fertilization of female egg by sperm outside the uterus (womb) i.e. in vitro. This lab procedure had successive steps in the order of ovulation induction, egg retrieval, insemination, fertilization, embryo transfer and at last pregnancy test.
Approximately, 5% or lesser population of infertile couples actually takes the help of IVF. The first successfully recorded birth of “test tube baby” through IVF took place in England during 1978 and she was named as Louise Brown, aged 32 presently. Currently more than 250,000 babies have been born via the process of IVF.
Necessity of IVF:
IVF is carried out in case of infertility that is due to various causes including,
- Pelvic inflammatory diseases that leads to the blocking or damage of fallopian tubes
- Decreased number of sperm count or motility issues that cause the male infertility
- Unknown cause of infertility
Benefits of IVF:
- IVF makes way to infertile couple to have their own baby
- Following IVF, a woman does not need fallopian tube surgery, hence half of the fallopian tube surgeries are avoided due to IVF procedure
Risk and complications associated with Egg retrieval procedure
- A negative reaction to the administered medicine or anesthesia
- Increased chance of multiple pregnancy and complications associated with multiple pregnancies including miscarriage, gestational diabetes, premature labor or low birth weight.
- They are prone to more chances of having ectopic pregnancies, in contrast to normally conceived child
- During the treatment, the hormone injections can cause Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome, leading to various side effects including mood swings, water retention and headache.
IVF medicines are mainly administered through injections, ultimately repeated injections lead to bruising
Preparation before egg retrieval:
- Hormone analysis is done based on blood tests
- USG is done every alternate day, to closely watch the development of egg follicles
- Please avoid any kind of make up, jewels , perfume or contact lenses during the time of treatment
- Be careful not to have food or drink the night before the procedure
- Seek the help of a close one to help you after the procedure
Instruction for semen collection:
- The semen specimen should be should be collected by masturbation and before that it is important to wash hands and penis.
- A sterile container will be provided by the lab which must be used for semen collection and transported at body temperature within one hour of collection
IVF after care for woman:
- There is a slight uneasiness that may have crop cramps at the pelvic region after the egg retrieval which usually subsides within a day
Special precautions to be followed after egg retrieval and Embryo Transfer:
- When there is any indication of menstruation, immediately report to the doctor, however slight spotting is common.
- Medication should be strictly followed as per prescription
- Alter the diet into a balanced one that is devoid of high fat content or has high spiciness. See that you have a light, high fiber containing balanced food
- Hot tubs and swimming pools cannot be used during the procedure period
- Take assistance for driving for a day
- Ensure proper rest.
- Intercourse and tampons have to be avoided totally
- After the embryo transfer, the woman should not strain at all and preferably remain in lying position for the time as per the instruction of the doctor.
- Strenuous activities such as heavy lifting should be skipped till treatment is successful
Following the embryo transfer, pregnancy may be confirmed after 12 to 14 days.
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